Vol. 40 (2018), pp. 81–92 • 1.84 MB
Firas Alawneh,1 Eyad Almasri 2
1 Department of Conservation Science, Queen Rania Faculty of Tourism & Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
2 Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania Faculty of Tourism & Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
(Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Ancient mortars have been widely studied, in connection with both diagnosis and applications required for restoration. This study is primarily based on analyses of different mortar samples from a Hellenistic temple. The study was done by means of a polarizing microscope equipped for observations in transmitted and reflected light; and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) were also used to confirm and supplement the microscopic data, and wet chemical analyses were performed on the acid filtrate for soluble oxides of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, S, Na and K. Chemical and petrographic analysis were used to determine chemical composition and physical properties, which in turn provide an in-depth understanding of the structural behavior and durability characteristics as they relate to the composition. The results show that the plaster used was a lime-based mortar. The cementing binder was a lime (identified by spot test) with fossilized shell, very fine grain size quartz, and some other minerals as the aggregate. The EDS analysis showed the presence of calcium and a small proportion of magnesium; in addition, silicon, aluminum, potassium, and iron were detected. Possibly, the silicate compounds contributed to the hydraulic component. We found strong similarities among mortar samples used in the temple. Physical methods provided useful information on the mineralogical compounds and the surface structures of samples, allowing for the postulation of deterioration mechanisms and overall decay, including the identification and crystalline morphology of reaction products and salts. These results aid in both understanding the technology of historic mortars and planning the restoration of these mortars.
Mortar analysis; SEM-EDS; Gadara; Lime; Restoration.
Alawneh, F., E. Almasri. 2018.
Investigations of Hellenistic Mortar from Umm Qais (Gadara), Jordan.
Arqueología Iberoamericana 40: 81-92. http://purl.org/aia/4009.
Received: October 3, 2019. Accepted: October 14, 2019. Publication date: December 21, 2018.
Amoroso, G.G., V. Fassina. 1983. Stone Decay and Conservation: Atmospheric Pollution, Cleaning, Consolidation and Protection. Material Science Monographs. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 453 pp. Google Scholar.
De Santis, F. 1995. Interaction of acid gaseous atmospheric pollutants with carbonate stones. In International Proceeding of Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage, pp. 335–47. Google Scholar.
Del Monte, M., V. Minguzzi, P. Rossi. 1996. Air pollution and weathering of marbles in outdoor environments sheltered from rainwater. In Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage: Proceeding of the 1995 LCP Congress (Montreux, 1995), pp. 371–81. Lausanne.
Espinosa Marzal, R.M., G.W. Scherer. 2008. Crystallization of sodium sulfate salts in limestone. Environmental Geology 56(3–4): 605–21. Google Scholar.
Flatt, R.J., M. Steiger, G.W. Scherer. 2007. A commented translation of the paper by C.W. Correns and W. Steinborn on crystallization pressure. Environmental Geology 52(2): 221–37. Google Scholar.
Genkinger, S., A. Putnis. 2007. Crystallization of sodium sulfate: Supersaturation and metastable phases. Environmental Geology 52(2): 295–303. Google Scholar.
Hayes, C.S., B.J. Bluck. 1996. An examination of some of the causes of sandstone deterioration at Culzean Castle, Scotland. In Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage: Proceeding of the 1995 LCP Congress (Montreux, 1995), pp. 151–9. Lausanne. Google Scholar.
Haynes, H., R. O'Neill, M. Neff, P. Kumar. 2010. Salt weathering of concrete by sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. ACI Materials Journal 107(3): 256–66. Google Scholar.
Kumar, R. 1998. Deposition Studies on Consolidated Stone. Progress report. Materials Research Program. Natchitoches: NCPTT.
Kunlin, M.A., X.I. Youjun, L. Yunhua. 2007. Deterioration characteristics of cement mortar by physical attack of sodium sulfate. Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society 35(10): 1376–81. Google Scholar.
Morgan, M.H. 1960. Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture. New York: Dover Publications.
Murphy, T. 2004. Pliny the Elder's Natural History: The Empire in the Encyclopaedia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 233 pp. Google Scholar.
Nehdi, M., M. Hayek. 2005. Behavior of blended cement mortars exposed to sulfate solutions cycling in relative humidity. Cement and Concrete Research 35(4): 731–42. Google Scholar.
Scherer, G.W. 1999. Crystallization in pores. Cement and Concrete Research 29(8): 1347–58. Google Scholar.
Seinfeld, J. 1985. Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry of Air Pollution. Wiley. Google Scholar.
Thaulow, N., S. Sahu. 2004. Mechanism of concrete deterioration due to salt crystallization. Materials Characterization 53(2–4): 123–7. Google Scholar.
Tsui, N., R.J. Flatt, G.W. Scherer. 2003. Crystallization damage by sodium sulfate. Journal of Cultural Heritage 4(2): 109–15. Google Scholar.
Viles, H.A. 1990. The early stages of building stone decay in an urban environment. Atmospheric Environment. Part A. General Topics 24(1): 229–32. Google Scholar.
Yang, Q., Q. Yang. 2007. Effects of salt-crystallization of sodium sulfate on deterioration of concrete. Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society 35(7): 877–80. Google Scholar.
Zappia, G., C. Sabbioni, M.G. Pauri, G. Gobbi. 1994. Mortar damage due to airborne sulfur compounds in a simulation chamber. Materials and Structures 27(8): 469–73. Google Scholar.
© 2018 ARQUEOLOGIA IBEROAMERICANA. ISSN 1989-4104. License CC BY 3.O ES.
Edited & Published by Pascual Izquierdo-Egea. Graus, Spain.
W3C HTML 4.01 compatible.